Prácticas pedagógicas, futuros y desplazamiento forzado: Un estudio comparado de los casos de Colombia y México
González Nieto, Noé Abraham
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In a period characterised by massive forced displacement, the evaluation of the cases of Colombia and Mexico constitutes a reference to analyse this situation in the Latin American region. While Colombia has experienced an armed conflict since the second half of the twentieth century, with more than seven million internally-displaced people (UNHCR, 2017), Mexico witnesses forced migration for religious, political and drug-related issues, with more than 300 thousand internally-displaced people (Mexican Commission for the Defense and Promotion of Human Rights, 2017). In these contexts of violence and vulnerability, education has been considered a way to support displaced communities in processes of social improvement and construction of possible and alternative futures and life aspirations. In this study, I present a comparative ethnographic and narrative research of how pedagogical practices in formal and nonformal educational contexts interact with the formation of notions of futures and life aspirations of communities in Colombia and Mexico who have experienced forced displacement. Following a qualitative perspective on the cultural practices of the contexts and life histories of participants, results are organised in two levels of analysis: (1) Particularities of each context and its needs, and (2) Comparative categories of the pedagogical practices. In the first section, characteristics of the linguistic practices, tensions and challenges of the pedagogical contexts, role of the participants and social identities are identified in relationship with the formation of notions of futures and life aspirations. In the second section, comparative and cross-national categories are identified, in order to recognise similarities and differences between the cases of Colombia and Mexico. These categories are explained with an educational model that seeks to transform pedagogical practices in contexts with the presence of forced displacement: (a) Language as a transformative tool, (b) Community bonds and socialisation of futures, (c) Continuous reflection on time, and (d) The development of place-based pedagogies with the support of key actors. Conclusions elaborate towards the need to consider these elements to promote the formation of notions of futures and life aspirations in contexts of forced displacement, in order to create individual and social agency and critical hope. These recommendations look to enhance these communities to create possible and alternative futures, drawing from their experiences in educational settings.